Yat tɣri ɣ ungal “Ijjign n tidi”

Lahcen Zaheur

Ikcm uslamad Mupmmad Akunaä s usays n ungal s ungal dars izwarn “ Tawargit d imikk” (2002 ), lli igan yan zg ungaln irçmn abrid n wallas ungalan v tskla tamazivt tatrart.

Smmus isgåasn, issäfr as d yan ungal yaän « Ijjign n tidi »( 2007), lli çëëav is sis ikcm uslmad nv amaäal n usnflul v wanaw ad n tskla.

Ig ungal ad yan ubuvlu v ungal amaziv, ad ig v uswir n twila (forme) nvd v uswir n tamayt (le contenu).

v ungal nns amzwaru “ Twargit d imikk”, iäfr gis Ukunaä tavarast taqburt n ungal , ar gis zzigiznt timsar v yan uärf yuvvän, ar his aqqwlaynt tmsar imikk s imikk ar kiv gis lkmnt afa n tassast, ar d ilmma ttaæint s ufsay.

v ungal ad nns amaynu “ Ijjign n tidi”, inapya d walli izwarn v tvarast s ittuska; iäfr gis Ukunaä yat tvarast zv tvarasin s itussan ungal amaynu (le nouveau roman) dar imnugal imaäalnn lli ttaranin ungal amaynu, zun d “Alain Robb-Grillit” d “Nathali Sarraut” d “Klaud Simon”.. v Fransa, d “Samuel Pickett” d “James Joyc” v Irland, d wiyaä …

v ungal “ Ijjign n tidi”, ar nn iïïaç Ukunaä s wanaw ad n ungal amynu, ig ungal ad nns yat tirmit tamaynut v tskla tamazivt.

couv_ijjigenntidiv ungal ad, ur ar nn nttafi timsar ar zzigiznt zun d mklli s ar zzigiznt v ungal aqbur; zv umzwaru ar amggaru ar ttamçnt timsar v ungal aqbur yan uärf ivrrdn, ar aqqwlaynt ar afa n tassast, aænt d v tgira nnsnt , ismd ilmma ungal.

Timsar v “ Ijjign n tidi” lluzzant zund iv lluzzan middn v udvar, v sin izmaz imnapyan, macc ismun tn yan udvar. Ar issyafa imvri lli ur imyarn anaw ad v ungal amaynu is ijla gr iwlafn, gr tmsar, gr tudrt n iwrikn, gr asmid d war usmid, macc yan udvar av ukan illa mqqar ittummskal uzmz.

v “ Ijjign n tidi”, timsar lluzzant v uzmz, macc yan ad yumçn ifalan nnsnt ar av ismarray v umaäal n ungal ad, ad t igan d uwrik “ Taryalt” ( awrik asilan- Principal– v ungal), ar av ittals i tudrt nns v ugraw n usun “ Akuban” d tudrt n iwrikn dis illan v usun ad. Iv av yiwi s uzmz n mççi nns, azmz n tmmara lli iddr v akud ann, mklli gis ddrn “ayt ukuban” ula nttni, iswirri av d s uzmz v iddr vil ad. Gr uzmz usmid d uzmz n vil ad, av ar zzigznt timsar v uzmz n ungal sis içlin.

Timsar bäant f yan d mraw n imir, kra igat imir iga yan awlaf içlin s kra n uggid ( personnalité) d tudrt nns d tzdayin nns v ugraw.

D kra igat imir/awlaf ar gis iddm umalus lli igan “Taryalt” ( ig nit dav awrik asilan) s wawal n ugns nns iv ijmmo d ixf nns, fadd ad iæti kra n uggid yawi yav s umzruy ar ittals i tudrt nns, ikf av ismmaqqaln nns s tudrt d isyafatn nns. S tavarst ad tasklant a s ittuska ungal: Awrik “ Taryalt” ar ittavul s uzmz izrin, ar ittals, ar issku tudrt n kra igat uggid d kra igat awrik, tudrt kki dis iddr v ukuban, nvd talli li fllas issfld, iv ismd tudrt ad yavul d s vil ad nnns, ad dav issnti yat allas f kra n ukkid yaän..

Ammuddu ad lli illan v ungal “ Ijjign n tidi” gr azmz usmid d vil, rad t äfrnt timsar ula nttnti, v gra igat imir ra ddmnt s uzmz n vil wrrint s mad izrin.

Azluzzu n uzmz d timsar d tiwlaf v “Ijjign n tidi” ad isskcamn ungal-ad s wanaw n ungal amaynu (le nouveau roman).

Aswir n twila :

Ittubäa ungal n “ Ijjign n tidi” f yan d mraw n imir :

  1. Talilt n muva.
  2. Amalu n immi n mrru.
  3. Tawayya n izikitn.
  4. Amarg inqqan.
  5. Idrimn ssallanin.
  6. Is ila ignna tiflwin.
  7. Lalla bus.
  8. Tagat n ayt ukuban.
  9. Bihi n tdwwart
  10. Tafruyt n trumit.
  11. Tillqs d umarg

Imirn n ungal-ad mqqar ar ttnfalaln( ttbayann) mnapyan macc illa yan ifili sdidn tn izdin, igat tudrt n uwrik “Taryalt”, lli igan acamuc n timsar n ungal.

Ar ittals “Taryalt” i tudrt nns v “Akuban” lli igan yan ugraw v ugama n tmazirt nv, v kra n izmaz n tassast v umzruy nv, izmaz ittawssann s usgåas n waynri d isgåasn n laç d uvni lli yutn agama amvribi .

Izäar ungal “ ijddign n tidi” ad v nn isskcm s tudrt n ugraw n “ Akuban”, ad nddr tizdayin xwcnnin d tzdayin fulkinin izdin anawn n middn gis iddrn, d ad nddr tiwuriwin nnsn d iswingimn nnsn d tamavt d inttayn gr atsn; yan ugraw anafgan ku yan ar ilddi s tsga ad issnjm ixf nns zv laç d tamttant. Kra n iwlafn sggannin n tudrt mklli tga, macc ar tn dav rççan iwlafn inafgann fulkinin n tikki d turrgza d tiwizi..

Timsar :

Ar isawal ungal “Ijjign n tidi” f tudrt n “ Taryalt” v ugraw “ Akuban” g sin izmaz : g mççi nns d vil akud lliv ad ittals.

G uzmz usmid, ar av ittawi “ Tryalt” d wallas nnns s tudrtin n wiyaä lli dids idrun tudrt v ugraw Akuban, ar issisfiw tisggiwin n iggadn f ar isawal, tisggiwin ingän g tmmara d takrfãa d laç v uzmz ann izzri.

Izmaz ad ssin aqbur d vil, tsmuntn tmmara d uviluf: v uzmz aqbur tammara d laç d tmuäan lli yutn agraw n “ukuban” ifl d imzlaä nns – v iga Taryalt lliv ar sul ikssa- utn s içuëan.

G uzmz n vil (mqqar d ikka “Taryalt” Fransa iïïf iqariän) yusi sul izmuln n uviluf d tmmara n iägam, tammara da issum “Taryalt” g mççi nns dar zv ait ukuban, ar ilmma ittlli vil-ad ad ittva ( venger) g ayt ukunan.

Tawada yad n uzmz v ungal, ikfa i uwrik asulan yat tdrfit ad ittlli gr iggidn d inmvurn n ugraw, ad gisn içli willi iïïafn atig s udriz da fln g ugraw nvd v uwrik, mka nn as d yucka ungal ibäa f yan d mraw(11) n imir, kra igat imir s mas içli v yat tsga zv tsggiwin n ugraw n Ukuban.

  • Imir izwarn : talalit n muva. ( awal n uånns)

Imir ad izwarn lli s iddm ungul, içli s uwrik “ Taryalt” ar av gis isawal f ixf nns, rad gis nnssn is d ikka Fransa, ig vila zg inmvurn n tmazirt n “Akuban” s uqariä lli d yiwi, imikk siv mmattint tmsar s umzruy, ar iznnzmal “ Taryalt” gr tudrt vil-ad d tudrt nns lliv tt nn ikka iga amksa g mççi nns urta t yiwi muva s Fransa.

Rad nnssn is adlli iddr v tmmara d urfufu g Ukuban lliv tt inn ikka iga amksa, mlad ur d Muva da t id illiln ra d ukan sul iddr v tmmara n tkctataft n tayssa.

Mqqar txwcn tvarast llis s ar istti Muva middn, tavarast irwasn talli s ar sttin ismgan ad tn svin, macc issyafa “Taryalt” is t tga Fransa d urgaz. Azmz ikkan f imir-ad igat azmz n vil waxxa ittwiri uwrik s umzruy s tvarast n ikttayn ( flash back).

  • Imir wi sin : Amlu n immi Mrru.( Aflas amadan)

Iäfr sul uwrik “ Taryalt” ar sul isawal f ixf nns, ar nn ittddr ilmma v iswigimn nns, rad nnssn awrik ad g snat tsggiwin :

Tasga nns tamzwarut xttalli immal i middn, ittussan sis, iga tt “ Taryalt” s tuggtt n tassast gis illan, macc ttassast ad tiwi as tt id v yat tsga tudrt n uççlä lli adlli iddr g mççi nns, v yat tsga yaän ira ad dis ur issfl awd yan zg ait ukuban lli adlli fllas izzrin tammara.

Tasga nns tis snat tngä v uviluf idran, yiwi t id zg mççi nns, zg tammara d lkcift lli fllas izrin.

Lliv av isnumml Taryalt tasga ad n tudrt nnns, iswirri av ilmma s umzruy g adlli iga amksa, iæt id kra n ilvuvn d iggidn n tmazirt v iga umvnas “Amanuz” d unmvur lli ittussann s tikki v ukuban “ Bihi n Uswwan”, fadd ilmma ad isawl f tårramt “ Immi Mrru” lli f ibidd ugraw n Ukuban. Isawl f manik as ar sårramn middn n Ait ukuban taårramt ad lli s flsn, d ur ad iskr yan kra ar kiv d ikka asmäl n tårramt-ad, mklli tskar immas n Taryalt d tmddakælt nns “Lalla Bur”; taårramt lli f ad ttagåa tafukt tssudm tasga n usmäl f d tzwar, mka nn dav iv ad trup, mklli s flsn ait ukban.

Awd lliv immut babas n “Taryalt” ifl t id imççi nit sul, ur tssugr immas n wazzan abla ad tini:« rbbi d immi Mrru ad issfawn, afgan ur igi vas adrval ».

G tsga yad n uskd dar ait ukuban, ra d zzigiznt tmsar ad sawlnt f kra n wanawn n iggidn v ukuban lli yusin timitar n wattagn n ugraw (uddur s umdya) , zun d babas d Wasil d oddi n Tmujart, mac rad dav yili mar ( contre) nnsn lli yusin gar intagn zun d “ Ait Ubnkal” lli mu iggut wayda nnsn, macc ur gin yat dar middn slawan akæ lliv asn trwl illi tsn, tfal asn d azwar d gar.

  • Imir wis këaä : Tawayya n izikitn ( tissumga ):

Imir ad içli t umalus “Taryalt” lli igan acamic n ungal i “Lalla Ibba” tawayya n izikitn lli igan udm n middn illan v tsila n ugraw, udm n tssumga.

Tawayya n izikitn “Lalla Ibba” tddr yat tksna(trajidi) v ugraw, g yat tsga ur tgi yat dar middn, g yat tsga yaän lliv as kkisn imalan nns ( willi mu tga rawayya nnsn) argaz nns, zznzin t nn v yat tmazirt yaggugn. Tmmav sul “Lalla Ibba” g tgira n tudrt nns aylliv tssdrf ixf nns, immav bab nns d waggag n tmzgida ad tt id iswirri dav s tssumga macc trufç asn, tmmt sul v tgira as lliv immut anmvuë n ukuban “Bihi n Uswwan”.

Idru “Taryalt” twayya-ad v tgira nnns yan wakud ittupban v tudrt nns, iddukæl dis, ar d dars ittkkai izzri dis yat tizit n ugwjjaj mqqar fllas tmqqur, ar gis issyafa tadrawt n tlkkawt ( assimçi) n Ayt Ukuban.

  • Imir wis kkuç : Amarg inqqan ( taksna n tayri).

G imir ad, tawlaft n ukttay tiwi “ taryalt” ad d iæti kra v imksawn igan ammddkæl nns zun d “Apdadday” bu tlowwadt lli izäarn ad issrva kra igat apwac v illa; ur issin yan açur nns , yiwit id baba nns “ Biygrwan” imççi sul ar as ikssa, yimvur gr Ait ukuban.

Ig anaçur mqqurn dar middn, rad t tiri “ Tansafalin” yat tjddigt ifulkin n Ait ukuban yiri tt macc tla argaz, rad sul tffav tayri nnsn v yan upwac, tkk asun.Ur ad ikk lpal yat siv lap “ Apdadday” afin nn talowwadt nns dis ur ittngaran g tayssa, ur dav ikki lpal yat afin nn “ Tansafalin “ tmmut g yat tnuäfi, is tt inva urgaz nns ? awd yan ur issin .

Ttun middn “Apdadday”, ttun tansafalin.

  • Imir wis smmus: Is illa ignna tiflwin ( askd d tmzgida)

Iddm uwrik dav ar isawal d ixf nns ar t iççaä uviluf, ar immal g wawal ad n uåns taguäi lli yusi f Ait ukuban s tmmara lli fllas zzrin v mççi nns.

Tikklt- ad ur iwrri s mççi nns, ar ittals i mad as issutln v uggidn lli dis yumçn tavnnant d mgal , yan gisn aggag n tmzgida “Uddir Absku” lli igan yan zv waggagn iqburn ur irwasn aggag amvnas n ungal “ tawwargit d imikk”.

Lliv t isqqsa “ Taryalt “ yat tkklt lliv ad yakka lpadit f wayyur is nn illa v wis kkuç ignwan, d mav ufan irumin ad t lkmn , isqsa t Taryalt lli d ikkan Fransa : “manik za as at nçrra iv nn illa v wis kkiç ignwan?”.

Iggalli waggag tamrarut n usqqsi ad, ur as issugr amr ad gis isaäãa imssflidn nns lliv as d issæti is sul iga amksa, acku imksawn ur ssinn amr ad kssan ulli.

Ilin wiyaä yaän g Ukuban lli nn igan tavnnant d “Taryalt”, v iga “Apaytur” bu tsnas lli d ikkan nttan d “Bihuliyn” lhijj fad ad t afn, macc “Taryalt” ur asn ifl tufut ad, ikk d vd nttat lpijj ad t ur afn.

  • Imir wis säi : Idrimn ssallanin ( v Fransa )

“ Iv ad ttuv kra v tudrt inw, ur ad sar ttuv ass ann lliv pra umçv tivraä inw timzwura g Fransa” (2) may ad as issnti “Taryalt” imir ad .

v imir ad, ar isawal f tudrt nns v Fransa, ar ismzazal gr Fransa tamazirt n ufulki d tmazirt nns “Akuban” advar n zzlä d tmmara d uzäm. Fransa tamazirt n tdrfit d izrfan n ufgan, tswirri t id iga argaz nttan d mad sis akæ iddan mqqar gis iddr g tkrfaãa d tmmara n twuri g ifran n toddanin, macc v Fransa iïïaf umazzal atig mklli inna “Taryalt”.

v tmazirt nns “Akuban” iv ufan ad mzin amazzal ccin tivraä nns ur illi mad asn ittinin yat.

G Fransa radd iæti yan uggid “ Abndawc” lli dis ittbddadn ar as immal mad iskar aylliv ixalä.

  •  Imir wis sa : lalla Bus ( andudi n uflas)

Lalla Bus tamddakælt n immas lli immutn, yat twssart igan amdya n tmvart lli iflsn s tgurrma, rad gis yafi “Taryalt” agiwal lli t isdln v wakud lliv tllas tudrt v walln nns, akud lliv ukrn asmäl n tårramt “Immi Mrru” asin d gis tabuqqalt n wurv , tnfalal d (tbayn d) ilmma “Immi Mrru” lli s ad ttflasn Ayt ukuban is ur tgi amr tabuqqalt.

Tndudi taflast n “Taryalt” , aylli s ifls v tudrt nns yiwi t waäu, tkcm t id ilmma turda f uskd, imlalli, indudi ugns nns. iwats aggag n tmzgida “Bihi n ucamuc” saw is rad nn dars yaf ma as d iswirrin aflas nns, macc ur nn dars yufi tamrurt i mad isarn, ur as d ivama amr tamddakælt n tgllint n immas “Lalla Bus”.

“Lalla Bus” nttat tikkuräa n usmäl n “Immi Mrru” tga dars tamatart n tikki nns :” Ad k ur issipl ma yan a iwi, illa ma mi tfka Immi Mrru abuqqal n wurv nv win uçrf, illa ma s tga tatbirt tumlilt..illa ma mu tkfa asafar ..” (3).

Anna rad isar isar, Immi Mrru v dar “lalla Bus” d mas tt irwasn tga “Immi Mrru” igan taårramt, tg anäaf n usun, ma y ad akæ isarn ur ad issrwi aflas nns.

Yaf ilmma “Tryalt” asafar d ussunfu n ugns nns dar “Lalla Bus”, yavul as d uflas nns.

  • Imir wis ttam : Tagat n Ait ukuban ( amvnas d isgåasn n uqryan)

Imir ad içli t “Taryalt” i “Umanuz”, yan umvnas v Ait ukuban lli issisfiwn i middn- slawan akæ imksawn- tidt v ddrn, ar tn issfrak, ar asn immal izakakn ( isragn) n tammara d tkctataft v llan isd kkant Lmxzn lli tn ittun zun d iv ur gin v tmazirt ad.

Ma y ad ur fllas ifss lmxzn, rad ittyamaç “Umanuz”, ttyimiçn imksawn, ar ttn srfufun s ukuray d ttrisinti, isæëaä nnsn gantn afrak-ad lli tn id ikccmn, lliv sul ur ssugr ayt Lmxzn i “Umanuz” yat gin as aåri, nvin t, acku ur zäaën ad t sfissn amr s imnvi.

Ig umvnas ad yat tifawt iklulan v ugraw Akuban, mac dvya ssnsan tt.

  • Imir wis ttça : Bihi n Tdwwart

Yumç imir ad simraw d ttça (29) n tsna, imir akæ mqqurn v ungal, ar isawal f yat uggid “ Bihi n Tdwwart” lli d dar adlli ikssa “Taryalt”, izzri fllas tammara d laç v mççi nns.

Isnuml ( décrir) uggid ad v mnnawt tsggiwin, ar av yakka uggid ad v yan udm iqjrn igan win afgan aqrzaz, ipmln ad izzray tammara f middn , vi d ar isnuml Taryalt tammara d lkcift lli fllas izzri “ Bihi n Tdwwart” lliv ar s ikssa.

Macc iïïaf uggid ad yan udm yaän lli ipban ur at immal i yan, izäar Taryalt ad av t iml lliv d dars ikka yat tkklt lliv d issunfa zv Fransa, v udm ad yujja Taryalt “Bihi n Tdwwart” ad isawal f ixf nns.

v udman –ad ipäan, ar nçrra yat uggid yaänin s ismaqqaln nns sis içlin:

– Asmaqql nns s tillit : Asunäu nns v tudrt d uskd, ilkm gis aswir lliv izäar ad issti tavarast lli s ad immt, tavarst ur irwasn tin middn.

– Asmmaqql nns s ufgan : bu tdusi amu tga tudrt ur d bu tlkakt ( faiblesse), “ mad ur izäarn i tudrt ur as igi abla ad t tmzit” (4) .

– Asmaqql nns s tuzzuft ( sexe) : Atig n urgaz, dar tmvart, ur igi s uqariä nns wapdut, ar t ittgga argaz s tdusi nns v tzzuft.

– Asmuqql nns s tmvart : Mqqar ar ismuqqul s tmvart s yat tsga n tzzuft, macc tïïaf dar atig ur ad nn sis ig afus acku tamatart n tlkakt ad dars iga ma yann.

v tgira rad sul ilip “ Bihi n tdwwart” tssn ilmma tmvart nns is idda ad immt s tvarast ira.

  • Imir wis mraw : Tafrirt tarumit ( gr tvrma tafransist d tin tamazirt)

G imir ad, ar isawal f usvun ( ddin) d tzdayt gr as d tmvart, v imir ad izdi d snat tmvarin :

– G tmazirt isawl f tmvart nns, ur tt bahhra ibdir, ur tn izdi abla tanfult n iwl, tsaggl as tt inn adlli immas urta iddi s Fransa, ur ar sis issyafa, ula isru dis kra n ufray, rad sul tmmt lliv nn illa v Fransa, issyafa ilmma s tåëça is tt içäm lliv tt yiwi, macc may ad ikcm dars v umzruy, ur jjun tt ibdr s wassav nns, ur nnssin mad as ism, zun d iv ira ad tt issfaä zv tmuktayt nns.

– G Fransa issn gis yat trumit “Jaklin” yiri tt, tiri t, iddr dis yan uzmz aylliv ira as tt ittahl, macc inaapyatn d tmmzrayin illan gr atsn v tawssna d tvrma ur as iwsnt v iwl ad, bäun, yamç ku yan gisn avaras n tudrt ira.

  •  Imir wis yan d mraw : Tillqs d umarg( awccn ar d ikccm tamazirt)

G imir ad, ar isawl vf waggag “ Bihi n Ucamu” d usmmaqql nns amaynu s umarg, yiwi d is iga umarg tavarast n ibalisn, macc “Taryalt” issn is d amaynu ad lli d yiwi waggag is ur igi win nns, acku isgåasn ad disn iddr waggag ad, ar izëëa atig n umarg dar middn, ur jjun inna awal ad.

Amarg dar Ait ukuban iga zv tmagit nnsn, zv tawssna nnsn, imun disn v tmvriwin nnsn d twuriwin nnsn.. ig yan ugzzum zv tudrt nnsn aylliv d yucka v tgira waggag yiri ad t igdl.

(Rad tt id iäfë ugzzum wis sin)

Iwrman:

  1. “ Ijjign n tidi”, M. Akunad. tansramt Al aqlam, Agadir, 2007.
  2. “ Ijjign n tidi”, tasna 79.
  3. “ Ijjign n tidi”, tasna 93.
  4. “ Ijjign n tidi” , tasna 126.

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